Calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) is an amorphous light-yellow-brown powder obtained from the sulfite pulping of softwood. The organic framework of the additive is a sulfonated random polymer of three aromatic alcohols: coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol, of which coniferyl alcohol is the principle unit.
The commercial product has a weight-average molecular weight range of 40,000 to 65,000 and the name of the additive is intended to reflect this range and to distinguish it from other calcium lignosulfonates in the market place.
The intended use of calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) is as a carrier
(encapsulating agent) for fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and other functional ingredients in, e.g., fruitbased beverages,vitamin drinks, dairy products, and hard candies. Preparations of such substances will
contain calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) at ratios of active principle to lignosulfonate between 1:5 to 1:200.
Stability studies of the additive 1) stored in polyethylene containers (36 months) and in aluminium-foil bags (24 months); 2) as a component of a formulation of the additive with ß-carotene (48 weeks); and 3) in a ßcarotene-containing product form in a non-pasteurised, non-carbonated soft drink (3 months) all support the intended uses.
Calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) is an amorphous material derived from lignin. It is a light-yellow-brown powder that is soluble in water, but practically insoluble in organic solvents.
The product exhibits a weightaverage molecular weight in the range of 40,000 to 65,000 with greater than 90% ranging from 1,000 to
Calcium lignosulfonate (40-65) is produced from softwood in the sulfite pulping method for manufacturing paper. The wood chips are digested with acidic calcium bisulfite solution in large reaction vessels where they
are processed through cooking cycles of 6 – 10 hours. The highest temperature during a cooking cycle is approximately 130°. In this process, bisulfite ions react with the native lignin polymer of the wood to form
sulfonated lignin (i.e., lignosulfonate).
This reaction increases the water-solubility of the hydrophobic lignin
polymer. The calcium bisulfite provides the calcium ions that stabilise the anionic sulfonate groups in the lignosulfonates. After the completion of pulping, water-insoluble cellulose and soluble calcium lignosulfonate are separated by filtration.